Moyen-Orient (Syrie, Liban, Jordanie, Irak)

Les conflits armés d’hier et d’aujourd’hui ont suscité une demande humanitaire considérable au Moyen-Orient. La Suisse soutient les initiatives visant à venir en aide et à offrir des services aux populations touchées par la violence, qui ont besoin de protection. Elle contribue activement à la promotion de la paix et à la prévention des conflits violents. Elle s’efforce également d’assurer une gestion durable de l’eau, une éducation de qualité et la création de revenus pour les réfugiés, les déplacés internes, les migrants vulnérables et les communautés d’accueil en Irak, en Jordanie, au Liban, en Syrie et en Turquie.

Carte de la région du Moyen-Orient (Syrie, Liban, Jordanie, Irak)
© DFAE

Le Moyen-Orient reste au cœur de l’engagement de la Suisse et de la communauté internationale. Les conflits actuels et passés se sont accompagnés de violations des droits de l’homme et du droit international humanitaire (DIH). Depuis 2011, la crise syrienne a affecté la vie d’au moins 12 millions de personnes. Plus de 5,5 millions de Syriens sont enregistrés comme réfugiés dans les pays voisins (Liban, Jordanie, Turquie et Irak) et on compte encore 6 millions de déplacés internes. Le nombre de réfugiés rentrant chez eux est très faible. En outre, environ un demi-million de personnes ont été tuées et d’innombrables autres sont détenues ou portées disparues. L’Irak est en train de passer d’une phase d’urgence à une phase de relèvement. Cela dit, environ 1,6 million de personnes sont toujours déplacées à l’intérieur du pays et près de 7 millions ont besoin d’une aide humanitaire. Cette situation, qui dure depuis longtemps, continue de peser lourd sur les capacités des communautés d’accueil et des gouvernements. 

L’objectif premier de la Suisse au Moyen-Orient est de créer un environnement sûr pour les populations touchées par le conflit et les autres personnes vulnérables, en sauvant des vies et en autonomisant la communauté, en réduisant la fragilité et en créant des perspectives de développement. Au niveau politique, la Suisse s’efforce de développer la bonne gouvernance ainsi que le respect des droits de l’homme internationaux, des droits des réfugiés et du droit international humanitaire. Elle soutient également la prévention et la transformation des conflits.

Protection et Migration

Protection des personnes vulnérables touchées par le conflit en Syrie

En Syrie, le conflit armé en cours a contraint plus de 6 millions de personnes à quitter leur lieu d’origine et à chercher refuge ailleurs dans leur propre pays. En moyenne, ces réfugiés ont été déplacés deux ou trois fois depuis le début de la crise, ce qui les a précipités dans une grande fragilité. Ces populations particulièrement vulnérables ont besoin de logements, d’eau, d’éducation et d’autres services. La Suisse contribue à répondre à leurs besoins fondamentaux et à développer leurs moyens de subsistance grâce à des formations et à une aide en espèces. 

Prévention des catastrophes, aide d’urgence, reconstruction et protection

Eau, hygiène et assainissement

Amélioration de l’accès à l’eau et à l’assainissement dans la vallée de la Bekaa, Liban

Le Liban accueille plus d’un million de réfugiés syriens. En conséquence, la pression sur les ressources naturelles telles que l’eau est très forte. Dans la vallée de la Bekaa, à la frontière syrienne, la DDC soutient les autorités locales chargées de l’approvisionnement en eau et de la gestion des eaux usées. Cette collaboration a pour but de fournir de l’eau propre et salubre aux communautés d’accueil et aux réfugiés syriens vivant dans la vallée.

L’eau

Education de base et formation professionnelle

Renforcer la qualité et favoriser des systèmes d’éducation inclusifs

Les conflits et les déplacements ont mis à rude épreuve des économies locales déjà fragiles. L’engagement de la Suisse vise à réduire l’impact économique en facilitant un accès équitable à l’éducation et aux revenus. Le renforcement des capacités nationales en matière d’éducation doit permettre d’améliorer l’apprentissage des enfants et de contribuer à la réalisation de leur potentiel éducatif en leur donnant les moyens de mener à terme leur scolarité obligatoire. L’engagement suisse encourage les activités lucratives et le développement du secteur privé, tout en favorisant l’instauration de cadres juridiques propices à la génération de revenus décents. Ce faisant, la DDC a pour but d’améliorer, de manière équitable, les perspectives de subsistance des femmes et des hommes. En incluant les communautés d’accueil et les réfugiés dans les initiatives touchant à l’éducation et à la création de revenus, cette approche vise à renforcer la cohésion sociale et à prévenir la recrudescence de la violence.

Education de base et formation professionnelle

Promotion de la paix et prévention des conflits  

Favoriser des conditions propices à la paix et à la réconciliation

La Suisse entend s’attaquer aux causes profondes de la violence et prévenir les conflits violents. Elle œuvre également en faveur de la paix en rétablissant les relations et les systèmes sociaux répondant aux besoins de l’ensemble de la population et en contribuant à la résolution des conflits. Pour ce faire, elle met en place des processus associant des acteurs étatiques et non étatiques au niveau communautaire ou national. Par ailleurs, elle travaille à l’élaboration de cadres juridiques et politiques.

Approche et partenaires

Les causes des conflits prolongés au Moyen-Orient et leurs interactions doivent être appréhendées au niveau régional. La Direction du développement et de la coopération (DDC), la Division Paix et droits de l’homme (DPDH) et le Secrétariat d’État aux migrations (SEM) travaillent en étroite collaboration, dans le cadre d’une approche interdépartementale, pour réaliser les objectifs de la coopération internationale de la Suisse dans la région.

Le soutien de la DDC s’articule sur quatre axes :

  1. contributions en espèces et en nature à des organisations humanitaires et d’aide au développement,
  2. action directe,
  3. détachement d’experts techniques du Corps suisse d’aide humanitaire (CSA) auprès des organismes des Nations Unies et
  4. promotion de la coordination internationale et de la diplomatie humanitaire.

Le soutien de la DPDH consiste à fournir une expertise aux acteurs multilatéraux et nationaux par la mise à disposition d’équipes du Pool d’experts pour la promotion civile de la paix ou d’experts internes au DFAE, en facilitant et en accueillant les échanges, en renforçant les capacités directement ou par l’intermédiaire des ONG, ainsi qu’en apportant un soutien, notamment technique ou financier, aux ONG internationales et nationales.

Les principaux partenaires de la Suisse dans la région sont:

  • les acteurs nationaux et locaux dans les pays concernés,
  • les organisations internationales telles que le Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR),
  • les organisations multilatérales: le Bureau de la coordination des affaires humanitaires (OCHA), le Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés (HCR), le Fonds des Nations Unies pour l’enfance (UNICEF), l’Office de secours et de travaux des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés de Palestine dans le Proche-Orient (UNRWA), le Bureau de l’Envoyé spécial pour la Syrie, le Programme des Nations unies pour le développement (PNUD), etc,
  • les organisations locales de la société civile,
  • les ONG suisses et internationales comme Terre des hommes et MEDAIR, entre autres.

Projets Irak

Objet 1 – 2 de 2

  • 1

Supporting displacement-affected communities to access essential services and achieve durable solutions in Diyala and Ninewa governorates, Iraq

15.04.2023 - 14.04.2025

Although the Islamic State (IS) was defeated territorially more than five years ago, 2.5 million people in Iraq are in need of humanitarian assistance. This project aims to address key protection issues, such as lack of access to civil legal documents, in displacement-affected communities in Diyala and Ninewa governorates. The goal is to achieve durable solutions through access to essential services and handover to national agencies through capacity building and advocacy.


Contribution to UNHCR Programme Budget 2023-2024 (earmarked)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNHCR is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners due to its unique mandate by the General Assembly of United Nations to provide protection and assistance to refugees, asylum seekers, refugee returnees, and stateless persons. The strategic direction 2022-26 concretise the overall mandate of UNHCR for the upcoming years. Contributing to these directions allows Switzerland to achieve in particular the human development goal defined in the Dispatch to Parliament on International Cooperation for 2021-24.

Objet 1 – 2 de 2

  • 1

Projets Liban

Objet 1 – 9 de 9

  • 1

OCHA Core Contribution 2024-2025

01.01.2024 - 31.12.2025

Switzerland’s objective is to support the United Nations (UN) Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) with high-quality funding while advocating for new, more inclusive and forward-looking ways of working to enable an efficient and effective humanitarian response to people in need in accordance with humanitarian principles and international humanitarian law. OCHA is a priority organization for Switzerland.


Decent Work Middle East

01.10.2023 - 30.09.2027

Migrant workers and refugees face obstacles to access decent work in the Middle East, one of the largest migrant hosting regions, which limits their ability to contribute to their countries of origin and destination. To maximize benefits of migration and reduce harm, Switzerland engages various public and private stakeholders for the promotion of decent working conditions in Jordan, Lebanon and the Gulf, through access to justice, migrant empowerment and addressing worker welfare in the green and just transition.


Contribution to UNICEF Transition and Resilience Education Fund (TREF)

01.07.2023 - 31.12.2025

Switzerland’s contribution to UNICEF’s Transition and Resilience Education Fund (TREF) in Lebanon ensures access to relevant quality public education for the most vulnerable children of all nationalities to avoid the scenario of a lost generation after 4 years of disrupted education. Amidst Lebanon’s economic crisis, TREF further contributes to improving the governance, efficiency, inclusiveness, and overall resilience of Lebanon public education system.


Program Contribution for Fondation Terre des hommes 2023-2024

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

The program of the Terre des hommes Foundation (TdhF) aims to sustainably reduce child mortality and morbidity and to secure access to health, sanitation and clean water for mothers and children (0-18 years) in severe poverty. Children in contexts of migration, conflict and disasters, and child victims of violence are better protected. International standards in child-friendly justice are promoted. Humanitarian interventions in fragile contexts, combined with poverty reduction and sustainable development are promoted through innovative work with children and youths.


Contribution to UNRWA's Programme Budget 2023-2024

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNRWA is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners in the Middle East, due to its important contributions towards stability and peace in the region and its role in providing services and humanitarian assistance to people in need. Under its Programme Budget, UNRWA ensures universal access to quality primary health care and to basic education to 5.8 million registered Palestine refugees. It also provides targeted relief and social services to vulnerable refugees.


Contribution to UNHCR Programme Budget 2023-2024 (earmarked)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNHCR is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners due to its unique mandate by the General Assembly of United Nations to provide protection and assistance to refugees, asylum seekers, refugee returnees, and stateless persons. The strategic direction 2022-26 concretise the overall mandate of UNHCR for the upcoming years. Contributing to these directions allows Switzerland to achieve in particular the human development goal defined in the Dispatch to Parliament on International Cooperation for 2021-24.


LEB/JOR DANIDA - Regional Development and Protection Programme (RDPP)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2026

In Lebanon and Jordan, the protracted refugee crisis, structural fragility, political and economic crises, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to increased poverty and unemployment, especially among youth and women. Switzerland will support vulnerable communities in both countries to access their rights, enjoy increased safety and enhance their self-reliance through a combination of livelihoods support, protection, research and advocacy contributing to progress towards durable and sustainable solutions.


LEB Access and Quality Education for refugee and vulnerable host community children

01.10.2021 - 30.09.2024

The education sector in Lebanon is facing multiple crises, leading to the discontinuity of learning for many children. Switzerland’s contribution to Plan International and Save the Children will provide children in the Bekaa and Baalbek-Hermel governorates with improved access to and retention in quality, safe and inclusive education. The project follows a triple nexus approach by considering immediate humanitarian needs and aiming at the reintegration of out-of-school children while fostering social cohesion in a context of mounting tensions. 


Decent Work for Migrants in the Middle East

15.07.2019 - 31.10.2024

This program contributes to decent work opportunities for migrants and refugees in the Middle East which is one of the largest migrant hosting regions globally due to economic demands and displacement from conflict. It complements the focus on Asian migrants with migrants from Africa and seek closer partnership with the private sector. Due to its relevant expertise and experience in decent work and fair recruitment, Switzerland is well placed to contribute to an improved protection and an enhanced wellbeing of migrant workers and self-reliance for refugees, to maximize the productive potential of migration, and to counter irregular and unsafe migration.

Objet 1 – 9 de 9

  • 1

Projets Syrie

Objet 1 – 2 de 2

  • 1

Contribution to UNRWA's Programme Budget 2023-2024

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNRWA is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners in the Middle East, due to its important contributions towards stability and peace in the region and its role in providing services and humanitarian assistance to people in need. Under its Programme Budget, UNRWA ensures universal access to quality primary health care and to basic education to 5.8 million registered Palestine refugees. It also provides targeted relief and social services to vulnerable refugees.


Contribution to UNHCR Programme Budget 2023-2024 (earmarked)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNHCR is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners due to its unique mandate by the General Assembly of United Nations to provide protection and assistance to refugees, asylum seekers, refugee returnees, and stateless persons. The strategic direction 2022-26 concretise the overall mandate of UNHCR for the upcoming years. Contributing to these directions allows Switzerland to achieve in particular the human development goal defined in the Dispatch to Parliament on International Cooperation for 2021-24.

Objet 1 – 2 de 2

  • 1

Projets Jordanie

Objet 1 – 12 de 13

Decent Work Middle East

01.10.2023 - 30.09.2027

Migrant workers and refugees face obstacles to access decent work in the Middle East, one of the largest migrant hosting regions, which limits their ability to contribute to their countries of origin and destination. To maximize benefits of migration and reduce harm, Switzerland engages various public and private stakeholders for the promotion of decent working conditions in Jordan, Lebanon and the Gulf, through access to justice, migrant empowerment and addressing worker welfare in the green and just transition.


System Strengthening Partnership Programme of the Ministry of Education Jordan and through UNESCO

01.07.2023 - 31.12.2025

In Jordan, the access to inclusive, protective quality education for vulnerable young people is impacted by natural and human-made hazards, including the protracted Syria crisis and climate change. Switzerland’s contribution to UNESCO for the System Strengthening Partnership Programme of the Ministry of Education enhances governance for evidence-based and crisis-sensitive education planning and delivery, as per Jordan’s Education Strategic Plan 2018-2025.


Sanitation Solutions for underserved Communities in Jordan

01.06.2023 - 31.05.2026

Switzerland will build a decentralised wastewater treatment plant in Azraq. Proven Swiss know-how in wastewater management will be applied to increase the efficiency of the treatment plant and to demonstrate how wastewater can be converted into physical and financial resources. The chosen approach for reducing freshwater consumption in agriculture by replacing it with safely treated waste water, in one of the most water-scarce countries, will be promoted based on the implementation of this flagship project.


Enhancing Protection and Justice for Vulnerable Children and Youth in Jordan

01.02.2023 - 31.12.2025

Children are among the most affected by multiple crisis in Jordan. The holistic child protection intervention proposed by Terre des hommes (Tdh) addresses and responds to the complex and intertwined protection needs of the most vulnerable children and youth in Jordan. It links quality of services with institutionalcapacity building and advocacy, thereby fostering a right-based and more sustainable child protection system and addressing hindering social norms in a comprehensive way.


JOR NRC Safe and Inclusive Schools (SIS) Programme

01.02.2023 - 31.12.2025

Switzerland aims to reduce barriers to sustainable solutions for children and adolescents through education programming in Jordan. With the project planned initiatives, capacity strengthening, evidence-based research and training, the school community will be mobilized for positive action within their schools and the improved knowledge and practices will increase the overall quality of teaching and learning, which in turn will improve retention rates in formal schools.


Contribution to UNRWA's Programme Budget 2023-2024

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNRWA is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners in the Middle East, due to its important contributions towards stability and peace in the region and its role in providing services and humanitarian assistance to people in need. Under its Programme Budget, UNRWA ensures universal access to quality primary health care and to basic education to 5.8 million registered Palestine refugees. It also provides targeted relief and social services to vulnerable refugees.


JOR Medair: Social protection program towards improving resilience of refugees and vulnerable Jordanians

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2025

The project initiates a third phase during which Medair Jordan will continue to reach new households in Amman, Irbid and Mafraq with case management and cash for protection, including emergency cash assistance, while focusing on livelihoods solutions to improve the resilience of refugees and vulnerable Jordanians. The project will also build and strengthen the institutional capacities of local actors to provide social protection services through coordination and experience and knowledge exchange.


Contribution to UNHCR Programme Budget 2023-2024 (earmarked)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNHCR is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners due to its unique mandate by the General Assembly of United Nations to provide protection and assistance to refugees, asylum seekers, refugee returnees, and stateless persons. The strategic direction 2022-26 concretise the overall mandate of UNHCR for the upcoming years. Contributing to these directions allows Switzerland to achieve in particular the human development goal defined in the Dispatch to Parliament on International Cooperation for 2021-24.


JPOs4UN Programme 2023-2028

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2028

The JPOs4UN programme aims at increasing the presence of Switzerland in the UN by augmenting the number of Swiss nationals working in SDC priority UN organizations. Switzerland directly funds partner humanitarian UN organizations to hire 11 Swiss young professionals on a three-year Junior Programme Officer contract; the Swiss foundation CINFO provides administrative support and career counselling. Swiss nationals add to a qualified and diverse UN workforce to implement the Agenda 2030.


LEB/JOR DANIDA - Regional Development and Protection Programme (RDPP)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2026

In Lebanon and Jordan, the protracted refugee crisis, structural fragility, political and economic crises, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to increased poverty and unemployment, especially among youth and women. Switzerland will support vulnerable communities in both countries to access their rights, enjoy increased safety and enhance their self-reliance through a combination of livelihoods support, protection, research and advocacy contributing to progress towards durable and sustainable solutions.


Decent Work for Migrants in the Middle East

15.07.2019 - 31.10.2024

This program contributes to decent work opportunities for migrants and refugees in the Middle East which is one of the largest migrant hosting regions globally due to economic demands and displacement from conflict. It complements the focus on Asian migrants with migrants from Africa and seek closer partnership with the private sector. Due to its relevant expertise and experience in decent work and fair recruitment, Switzerland is well placed to contribute to an improved protection and an enhanced wellbeing of migrant workers and self-reliance for refugees, to maximize the productive potential of migration, and to counter irregular and unsafe migration.


Urban Planning and Infrastructure in Migration Contexts

01.01.2021 - 30.06.2024

This Project aims at improving access to reliable services and socio-economic opportunities for migrants in urban settlements of supported cities in Myanmar, Egypt, Jordan and Cameroon. It will do so by developing inclusive urban development plans and link necessary economic infrastructure investments to financing in those settlements.

Objet 1 – 12 de 13